315 Phyllonorycter harrisella pupa found on oak at Norland village on Feb.2nd 2012. As the moth forms inside the pupa the eyes begin to darken and the wing pattern slowly develops. Moments before emerging the exarate  nature of the pupa becomes apparent. This is where the appendages are free from the main body of the pupa.

After wriggling and writhing for some minutes the moth broke through  the pupal case and emerged in a matter of seconds. Quite some performance extracting all its delicate limbs and antennae from the casings. This photo shows the wings around half way free.

 Half way out and already you can see there is hardly a scale out of place. As I've already got a satisfactory photo (to me at any rate) this one was left in peace to fly off to its well earned freedom.

315 Phyllonorycter harrisellaNew Lane, May 3rd 2010. One of two flying in the early morning sun - captured by hand!

316 Phyllonorycter roboris, Bankhouse wood, May 5th. Disturbed and captured by day. My only other record is of the mating pair below.

316 Phyllonorycter roboris, a mating pair on oak, North Dean wood, June 1st 2010. Captured by day.

320 Phyllonorycter quercifoliella mine on oak, Norland village, Mar.6th 2010. It's quite easy to find tenanted phyllo mines on oak right through the winter and in to the spring as many of the leaves persist on the tree.

320 Phyllonorycter quercifoliella on oak, Long wood, Apr.26th 2014. There were good numbers of these resting on oak trunks in the mid-afternoon sun. It's very refreshing to be able to photograph these moths in their natural setting for a change as oppose to trying to get reared moths to stay still on a staged substrate.

320 Phyllonorycter quercifoliella, in cop. on oak, Bankhouse wood, Apr.30th 2014. A field observation.

320 Phyllonorycter quercifoliella mine and cocoon on oak, North Dean top, July 2nd 09. The larva spins its cocoon with a covering of its own frass in the summer generation - visible as the dark oval in the mine. It maybe a good deterrent for birds but is less effective against  the long ovipositers of parasitic wasps.

320 Phyllonorycter quercifoliella mine on oak, Eaves Top wood, Stainland, Nov. 23rd 2016.

320 Phyllonorycter quercifoliella pupa on oak, Tag meadow, Dec.14th 2013. In the autumn generation the pupa is surrounded by "U"shaped frass.

321a Phyllonorycter platani mine in London Plane by the sewage works at Salterhebble, Nov.10th 2016.

323 Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae mine on Hawthorn, New Lane, Aug. 9th 2017.

324 Phyllonorycter sorbi mine on Rowan at Hollas Lane, Copley, Aug. 13th 2017. 

324 Phyllonorycter sorbi,  Mar.18th 2011. Reared from mines found in Bankhouse wood the previous autumn. 

324 Phyllonorycter sorbi , June 21st 2014. Reared from mines found on Rowan in Bankhouse wood earlier in the spring. 

328 Phyllonorycter junoniella mines on Cowberry, Norland Bilberry slopes, May 4th 2016. Quite easy to find if you look for brown mottling on the upper surface of the leaves and then on turning the leaf over you should see the puckered underside. Quite common at this site in 2010 and again in 2016.

328 Phyllonorycter junoniella May 11th 2016. Reared from the mines illustrated above. 

328 Phyllonorycter junoniella mine and empty pupal case of the moth illustrated above.

328 Phyllonorycter junoniella, May 28th 2010. Reared from mines on Cowberry found at Norland Bilberry slopes earlier that month. Of the many mines found that spring around 80% were parasitised and this was the only adult successfully reared.

329 Phyllonorycter spinicolella mine and empty pupal case in cultivated plum on Barry's plot at Skircoat Green allotments, July 25th 2017. One of several mines present.

330 Phyllonorycter cerasicolella, three of around 20 mines on cultivated cherry, Skircoat Green allotments, Nov.1st 2011. My other two other records, also on cherry are of one next to the towpath at Copley on Sept.29th and one on New Lane on Oct.2nd both in 2010.

330 Phyllonorycter cerasicolella  pupa, Mar.4th 2012. Having brought the above mines indoors in late February things didn't look promising at all as they were still in the larval stage. They all went back outside apart from this one which, despite vacating the mine, managed to pupate a few days later on Feb.27th. The wing, antenna and leg cases are visible and the eyes have already begun to darken - a promising sign.

330 Phyllonorycter cerasicolella, Mar.12th 2012. From the pupa pictured above.

332a Firethorn Leaf Miner, Bankhouse wood, May 26th 2014. Captured by day. A common species particularly on Pyracantha (firethorn) and cultivated apple.

332a Firethorn Leaf Miner larva and opened mine on Pyracantha, Salterhebble, Jan.23rd 08. The upper surface, papery blotches along the mid-rib can be found in their dozens on some plants.

332a Firethorn Leaf Miner mines on Pyracantha in the garden on Feb.28th 2016.

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