15.034 White Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter harrisella) pupa found on oak at Norland village on Feb. 2nd 2012. As the moth forms inside the pupa the eyes begin to darken and the wing pattern slowly develops. Moments before emerging the exarate  nature of the pupa becomes apparent - where the appendages are free from the main body of the pupa.

After wriggling and writhing for some minutes the moth broke through  the pupal case and emerged in a matter of seconds. It was quite some performance extracting all its delicate limbs and antennae from the casing. This photo shows the wings around half way free.

 Half way out and already you can see there is hardly a scale out of place. As I've already got a satisfactory photo (to me at any rate) this one was left in peace to fly off to its well earned freedom.

15.034 White Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter harrisellaNew Lane, May 3rd 2010. One of two flying in the early morning sun - captured by hand!

15.035 Gold-bent Midget (Phyllonorycter roboris), Bankhouse wood, May 5th. Disturbed and captured by day. 

15.035 Gold-bent Midget (Phyllonorycter roboris), a mating pair on oak, North Dean wood, June 1st 2010. Captured by day.

15.039 Common Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter quercifoliella) mine in oak, Norland village, Mar. 6th 2010. It's quite easy to find tenanted phyllo mines on oak right through the winter and in to the spring as many of the leaves persist on the tree.

15.039 Common Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter quercifoliella) on oak, Long wood, Apr. 26th 2014. There were good numbers of these resting on oak trunks in the mid-afternoon sun. It's very refreshing to be able to photograph these moths in their natural setting for a change as oppose to trying to get reared moths to stay still on a staged substrate.

15.039 Common Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter quercifoliella), a mating pair on oak, Bankhouse wood, Apr. 30th 2014. A field observation.

15.039 Common Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter quercifoliella) mine and cocoon in oak, North Dean top, July 2nd 09. The larva spins its cocoon with a covering of its own frass in the summer generation - visible as the dark oval in the mine. It maybe a good deterrent for birds but is less effective against  the long ovipositors of parasitic wasps.

15.039 Common Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter quercifoliella) mine (left) along with a Stigmella mine in oak, Eaves Top wood, Stainland, Nov. 23rd 2016.

15.039 Common Oak Midget (Phyllonorycter quercifoliella) pupa in oak, Tag meadow, Dec. 14th 2013. In the autumn generation the pupa is surrounded by "U"shaped frass.

15.041 London Midget (phyllonorycter platani) mine in London Plane by the sewage works at Salterhebble, Nov. 10th 2016. A recent colonist in Calderdale.

15.041 London Midget (phyllonorycter platani) from Spring Hall sports ground, Oct. 15th 2018. An opened mine revealing a pupa in a flimsy cocoon. It seems to be a common miner here amongst the roadside London Plane trees.

15.041 London Midget (phyllonorycter platani) Feb. 28th 2019. Reared from the mine pictured above. This site is about a mile up the road from the Salterhebble record suggesting this species has gotten a foothold in Calderdale and is slowly spreading.

15.043 Common Thorn Midget (Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae) mine in Hawthorn, New Lane, Aug. 9th 2017.

15.043 Common Thorn Midget (Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae) reared from a mine in hawthorn found at New Lane, Skircoat Green the previous autumn.

15.044 Rowan Midget (Phyllonorycter sorbi) mine in Rowan at Hollas Lane, Copley, Aug. 13th 2017. 

15.044 Rowan Midget (Phyllonorycter sorbi) Mar.18th 2011. Reared from mines found in Bankhouse wood the previous autumn. 

15.044 Rowan Midget (Phyllonorycter sorbi) , June 21st 2014. Reared from mines found in Rowan in Bankhouse wood earlier in the spring. 
15.046 Brown Apple Midget (Phyllonorycter blancardella) mine in cultivated apple at Skircoat Green allotments on July 21st 2018.

15.046 Brown Apple Midget (Phyllonorycter blancardella) mine opened up revealing the pupa inside a light cocoon. Collected from Skircoat Green allotments in mid-July of the same year. For some reason the well developed pupa didn't allow the moth to emerge successfully.

15.048 Upland Midget (Phyllonorycter junoniella) mines on Cowberry, Norland Bilberry slopes, May 4th 2016. Quite easy to find if you look for brown mottling on the upper surface of the leaves and when turning the leaf over you should see the puckered underside. Quite common at this site in 2010 and again in 2016.

15.048 Upland Midget (Phyllonorycter junoniella) May 11th 2016. Reared from the mines illustrated above. 

15.048 Upland Midget (Phyllonorycter junoniella) mine and empty pupal case of the moth illustrated above.

15.048 Upland Midget (Phyllonorycter junoniella), May 28th 2010. Reared from mines in Cowberry found at Norland Bilberry slopes earlier that month. Of the many mines found that spring around 80% were parasitised and this was the only adult successfully reared.

15.049 Sloe Midget (Phyllonorycter spinicolella) mine and empty pupal case in cultivated plum on Barry's plot at Skircoat Green allotments, July 25th 2017. One of several mines present.

15.050 Cherry Midget (Phyllonorycter cerasicolella), three of around 20 mines in cultivated cherry, Skircoat Green allotments, Nov.1st 2011. My other two other records, also in cherry are of one next to the towpath at Copley on Sept. 29th and one on New Lane on Oct. 2nd both in 2010.

15.050 Cherry Midget (Phyllonorycter cerasicolella) pupa, Mar. 4th 2012. Having brought the above mines indoors in late February things didn't look promising at all as they were still in the larval stage. They all went back outside apart from this one which, despite being outside the mine, managed to pupate a few days later on Feb. 27th. By noe the eyes have already begun to darken - a promising sign.

15.050 Cherry Midget (Phyllonorycter cerasicolella), Mar.12th 2012. From the pupa pictured above.

15.053 Firethorn Leaf Miner (Phyllonorycter leucographella) in Bankhouse wood on May 26th 2014. Captured by day. A common species particularly on Pyracantha (firethorn) and cultivated apple.

15.053 Firethorn Leaf Miner  (Phyllonorycter leucographella) mine and larva in the garden Pyracantha on Jan. 12th 2020.

15.053 Firethorn Leaf Miner  (Phyllonorycter leucographella), a close-up view of a feeding larva, details as above. 

15.053 Firethorn Leaf Miner (Phyllonorycter leucographella) mines in Pyracantha in the garden on Feb. 28th 2016.

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