NEPTICULIDAE: 56 - END

4.056 Barred Sycamore Pygmy (Stigmella speciosa) mine in Sycamore by the towpath above Cromwell Bottom, Aug. 10th 2017.
 
4.060 Red-headed Pygmy (Stigmella ruficapitella) mine and larva in oak by the Calder at Milner Royd, Sept. 4th 08.
 
4.060 Red-headed Pygmy (Stigmella ruficapitella) mines and larva in oak at North Dean wood, Aug. 30th 2017.
 
4.060 Red-headed Pygmy (Stigmella ruficapitella)(male), Apr.1st 2010. Reared from mines found near Norland village the previous autumn. Similar to other oak feeding stigmellas this one needed to be identified by microscopic examination of the hindwing (see below).
 
4.060 Red-headed Pygmy (Stigmella ruficapitella) - male, hindwing, Apr.2nd 2010. The short, dark, thick, hair-like scales (arrowed) are the androconial scales. They are present in the males only and release pheromones so the females can decide with which one to mate with. In this species they are around one third the length of the fringe.
 
4.061 Black-headed Pygmy (Stigmella atricapitella) mine and larva in oak, New Lane, Skircoat Green, Oct. 9th 2010.
 
4.065 Wood Lotus Pygmy (Trifurcella cryptella) mine in Common Birdsfoot Trefoil, Tag meadow, Cromwell Bottom, July 2nd 2017. Three mines were found and all were vacated. The gallery frass is greenish/brown, perhaps green when fresh. Eggs and larval exit holes on the underside.

4.071 Dusky Apple Pygmy (Bohemmania pulverosella) mine in cultivated apple, Skircoat Green allotments, July 3rd 2017. One of at least three mines present. 
 
4.076 Sycamore-seed Pygmy (Ectoedemia decentella), on my study window, June 7th 2011. Captured by day and a much sought after species. As the larvae supposedly mine the keys (seeds) of Sycamore I didn't hold out much hope of finding any of the mines so to find this adult with the minimum of effort was most unexpected.

 4.078 Hypericum Pygmy (Ectoedemia septembrella) mine in cultivated Hypericum, Skircoat Green, Aug.5th 2012. Having searched far and wide for wild St.John’s-wort I realised it exists in the cultivated form, Hypericum in several gardens close by and it wasn’t long before I found this mine. A nice long, thin gallery abruptly openeing out to a blotch. No adult to rear through this time as this larva had two ectoparasitoids attached!

4.078 Hypericum Pygmy (Ectoedemia septembrella) above and below, found crawling up my bedroom window, May 18th 2018.

4.078 Hypericum Pygmy (Ectoedemia septembrella) details as above.

4.082 Black-spot Sallow Pygmy (Ectoedemia intimella), mine and larva on Grey Willow at Tag Loop, Cromwell Bottom LNR, Nov. 13th 2016. Note the mine running along the petiole before entering the leaf blade and also the twin lines of frass.
4.085 Virgin Pygmy (Ectoedemia argyropeza) a tenanted mine in Aspen, found at Siddal wood on Nov.20th 2016. Despite only three Aspens present the mines were quite easy to find.

4.085 Virgin Pygmy (Ectoedemia argyropeza) a tenanted mine in Aspen, same leaf as above.
 
4.089 White-banded Pygmy (Ectoedemia albifasciella, mine and larva in oak, Siddal wood, Salterhebble, Sept. 15 2017. 

4.090 Spotted Black Pygmy (Ectoedemia subbimaculella) mine in oak, Bankhouse wood, Nov.26th 2010. The diagnostic "v" shaped slit is just visible against the midrib and vein which allows the frass to escape. This "green island" mine was found on the woodland floor amongst some early snowfall. 
4.095 Pinch-barred Pygmy (Ectoedemia atricolis), larva and mine in Hawthorn, Bankhouse wood on Aug. 23rd 2017. A  typical Ectoedemia mine starting as a narrow gallery, in this case along the edge of the leaf, and then opening out in to a blotch. The dark head of the larva separates it from Stigmella hybnerella

4.099 Large Birch Pygmy (Ectoedemia occultella), mines in Downy Birch, North Dean wood, Oct. 18th 2010. One of the most numerous mines I find. There are around a dozen, tenanted blotch mines on this one leaf alone.

4.099 Large Birch Pygmy (Ectoedemia occultella), mines and larvae in birch at Tag meadow, Cromwell Bottom LNR, Oct. 16th 2018. The frass is concentrated in a blotch, often near the centre of the mine. The right hand mine is complete and vacated.
 
4.099 Large Birch Pygmy (Ectoedemia occultella), (male), North Dean wood, June 8th 09. Captured by day on a Beech trunk. Its identification was aided by advice from Nepticulid expert Erik van Nieukerken and the use of my microscope to examine the forewing scales. Note the eye-caps (scapes) which are modified antennal segments and are a distinctive feature of this family. They are white in the male of this species.
 
4.100 Broken-barred Pygmy (Ectoedemia minimella), larva and mine in Hazel, North Dean wood,Oct.4th 09.

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