4.002 Drab Birch Pygmy (Stigmella lapponica)mine and larva in Downy Birch, North Dean wood, June 7th 2018. Note the cloudy green frass in the first third of the mine. It then suddenly turns linear and black, presumably coinciding with a change of instar.

4.002 Drab Birch Pygmy (Stigmella lapponica), North Dean wood, Apr.16th 2011. Disturbed and captured from Silver Birch by day. A typically small stigmella species with a wingspan of around 5-7mm. Thanks to Harry Beaumont for identifying it.

4.003 Pale Birch Pygmy (Stigmella confusella) mine in Downy Birch at Hollas Lane nature reserve, Sept. 2nd 2017.

4.003 Pale Birch Pygmy (Stigmella confusella), four mines in Silver Birch, North Dean wood, Oct.18th 2010. A similar mine to S.lapponica but the frass line is narrow and black throughout.

4.004 Lime Pygmy (Stigmella tiliae) in Birch at the Calder at Hollas Lane, Oct. 12th 2010.

4.006 Small Birch Pygmy (Stigmella sakhalinella) mine in Silver Birch at Copley meadow, Sept. 9th 2017.I had a pop down to Copley to see the instalment of the bridge at North Dean after the last one was severely damaged by the Boxing day floods. On route I stopped off at Copley meadow and got caught out in a torrential downpour. Whilst sheltering under a Silver Birch tree I noticed this mine. Straight away I knew it was something good - the coiled, brown frass throughout is a  good pointer. Unheard of in Yorkshire until 2010 it's still quite rare but I suspect more people are aware of it and searching for it.

4.007 Short-barred Pygmy (Stigmella luteella) mines and larva in Birch at Tag meadow, Sept. 19th 2017.

4.007 Short-barred Pygmy (Stigmella luteellamine and larva in Birch, North Dean wood, Oct.13th 09. Note the contorted start to the mine and the green gut line of the larva. The number of features to aid the identification of mines seems endless.

4.008 White-barred Alder Pygmy (Stigmella glutinosae) mine and larva in Common Alder by the Calder at Copley village, Sept. 17th 2017.

4.010 Nut Tree Pygmy (Stigmella microtheriella), Aug. 2nd 09. Reared from a mine on Hazel on Arthur's plot, Skircoat Green allotments. Eight adults reared from 12 mines that summer was an very good success rate, well, for me at least. At 1.9mm in length this is the smallest moth I've photographed to date......

20 Ectoedemia decentella, on my study window, June 7th 2011. Captured by day and a much sought after species. As the larvae supposedly mine the keys (seeds) of Sycamore I didn't hold out much hope of finding any of the mines so to find this adult with the minimum of effort was most unexpected.

23 Ectoedemia argyropeza tenanted mine in Aspen, found at Siddal wood on Nov.20th 2016. Despite only three Aspens present the mines were quite easy to find.

23 Ectoedemia argyropeza tenanted mine in Aspen, same leaf as above.

25 Ectoedemia intimella, mine and larva on Grey Willow at Tag Loop, Cromwell Bottom LNR, Nov. 13th 2016.

25 Ectoedemia intimella, mine and larva - details as above. Note the mine running along the petiole before entering the leaf blade and also the twin lines of frass.

29 Ectoedemia atricollis, larva and mine in Hawthorn, Bankhouse wood on Aug. 23rd 2017. A  typical Ectoedemia mine starting as a narrow gallery, in this case along the edge of the leaf, and then opening out in to a blotch. The dark head of the larva separates it from Stigmella hybnerella

34 Ectoedemia occultella, mines in Downy Birch, North Dean wood, Oct. 18th 2010. One of the most numerous mines I find. There are around a dozen, tenanted blotch mines on this one leaf alone.

34 Ectoedemia occultella, mine in birch at Tag meadow, Cromwell Bottom LNR, Sept.21st 2017. The frass is concentrated in a blotch, often near the centre of the mine.

34 Ectoedemia occultella (male), North Dean wood, June 8th 09. Captured by day on a Beech trunk. Its identification was aided by advice from Nepticulid expert Erik van Nieukerken and the use of my microscope to examine the forewing scales. Note the eye-caps (scapes) which are modified antennal segments and are a distinctive feature of this family. They are white in the male of this species.

 35 Ectoedemia minimella, larvae and mines in Hazel, North Dean wood,Oct.4th 09. Several mines at different stages of development, some tenanted others already vacated. 

37 Ectoedemia albifasciella, mine and larva in oak, Siddal wood, Salterhebble, Sept. 9th 2017. 

38 Ectoedemia subbimaculella, mine in oak, Bankhouse wood, Nov.26th 2010. The diagnostic "v" shaped slit is just visible against the midrib and vein which allows the frass to escape. This "green island" mine was found on the woodland floor amongst some early snowfall. 

40 Bohemannia pulverosella mine on cultivated apple, Skircoat Green allotments, July 3rd 2017. One of at least three mines present.

42 Ectoedemia septembrella, mine in cultivated Hypericum, Skircoat Green, Aug.5th 2012. Having searched far and wide for wild St.John’s-wort I realised it exists in the cultivated form, Hypericum in several gardens close by and it wasn’t long before I found this mine. A nice long, thin gallery abruptly openeing out to a blotch. No adult to rear through this time as this larva had two ectoparasitoids attached!

42 Ectoedemia septembrella, awaiting confirmation (above and below), found crawling up my bedroom window, May 18th 2018.


48 Trifurcula cryptella mine on Common Birdsfoot Trefoil, Tag meadow, Cromwell Bottom, July 2nd 2017. Three mines were found and all were vacated. The gallery frass is greenish/brown, perhaps green when fresh. Eggs and larval exit holes on the underside.

50 Stigmella aurella mines in bramble by the towpath above Cromwell Bottom on Feb. 22nd 2016.

50 Stigmella aurellamine and larva in bramble, North Loop, Feb.11th 09. Found on a cold, wet, miserable day but the rewards a month later were worth it (see two pics. down).

50 Stigmella aurella, mines and cocoons in bramble, Apr.10th 09. Found in North Dean wood. When rearing stigmellas it's worth checking the leaves after the larvae have vacated the mines to make sure they haven't pupated on them instead of the substrate provided.

50 Stigmella aurella, cocoon and empty pupal case, Mar.11th 09. A fantastic sight which immediately indicated that my first attempt at rearing a Stigmella species had been successful. Reared from the mine above found at North Loop.

50 Stigmella aurella, Mar.11th 09. Emerged from the pupa above. At 3mm long it looks nothing more than a tiny black fly in flight but close-up it has a lovely metallic sheen with a variety of colours.

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